The ceremonial position of Governor is made by the Queen on the recommendation of the Premier of the day.
Ms Bryce will succeed Major-General Peter Arnison.
The first female Governor of Queensland was Leneen Forde, who was appointed by the Goss Labor government in 1992.
This is the text of the statement released by the Premier of Queensland, Peter Beattie.
Her Majesty Agrees To The Appointment Of Distinguished Queenslander Quentin Bryce As The Next Governor
Her Majesty the Queen has agreed to the appointment of distinguished Queensland lawyer and advocate for human rights Quentin Bryce, AO, BA, LLB Qld, LLDhc Macq, HonDlitt CSturt, as the next Governor of Queensland.
"I am delighted that someone as distinguished and respected as Ms Bryce agreed to be nominated and that the Queen has agreed to the appointment," Premier Peter Beattie said today.
"Ms Bryce is on the record as saying that as a teenager she wanted to become a lawyer because she was - and I quote - 'imbued with altruistic notions of making the world a better place'.
"Her cv shows that for well over 30 years she has devoted herself to working hard in her public and private lives to fighting for the changes necessary to make life better for many - especially children and women.
"I believe that she will be able to build even further on the work of outgoing Governor Major-General Peter Arnison on making the role of Governor meaningful and relevant to all Queenslanders.
"And I look forward to Queensland's elected Members giving Parliamentary recognition to the appointment in historic proceedings which will be the first time that any Australian parliament has been given a role in the appointment of a governor.
"It doesn't need me to extol her virtues.
"When Ms Bryce was awarded an honorary doctorate of laws by Macquarie University in 1998, the citation said: 'She has a long and distinguished record of advocacy for human rights and in particular the rights of women and children.'
And: 'Quentin Bryce is an outstanding role model for others to emulate. She is a courageous and articulate person, always in the forefront of social change and responsibility, often facing strong opposition, but prepared to challenge aspects of legal practice and opinion which inhibit social process."
"When she was awarded an honorary doctorate of letters by Charles Sturt University last year, the citation referred to 'her outstanding leadership in Australian society' and said: 'She was one of the first women to be admitted to the Queensland Bar. She was the first woman appointed to the Law Faculty of the University of Queensland. She was a founder of the National Women's Advisory Council; the Founding Director of the Women's Information Services; the Founding Chair and CEO of the National Childcare Accreditation Council; and the first chair of the Board of Management for the Diploma of Policing Practice.
'The courage and dedication Ms Bryce has brought to her service to our community was well illustrated during her years as CEO of the National Childcare Accreditation Council. In leading the campaign to establish appropriate standards in this important field, she encountered strong opposition from powerful economic interests in the then childcare industry.
'…She has been an inspiring model of service to the Australian community.'
"Ms Bryce is currently the Principal of The Women's College within the University of Sydney.
"She has also been a member of - or led - more than 20 organisations as diverse as the Association for the Welfare of Children in Hospital, the Australian Women's Cricket Board, the National Breast Cancer Centre Network, the Children's Television Foundation, Plan International, YWCA, Mindease Mental Health Foundation, and the National Institute for Law Ethics and Public Affairs Advisory Board."
Ms Bryce is due to become Governor of Queensland in July.