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Prime Minister, Government and Opposition
House of Representatives and Senate
Queen, House of Representatives and Senate
Governor-General, House of Representatives and Senate
The Queen, or her representative, the Governor-General is considered part of the Parliament because royal assent is required for all legislation passed by the two houses. In practice, this assent is always given because the Queen and the Governor-General act on the advice of the Prime Minister.
In 1949, the House was increased in size to 121 members. In 1984, it was increased to 148.
Each state has 12 senators (6x12=72) and each territory has 2 senators (2x2=4)
The Prime Minister
The Leader of the Government
The term dates from the first meeting of the House following an election.
Territory senators serve a term concurrent with the parliament in their territory.
Territory senators serve a term concurrent with the House of Representatives, to a maximum of three years.
Territory senators serve fixed six-year terms, with half facing election every three years.
Territory senators serve fixed three-year terms, with all senators facing the electorate every three years.
Senators from the states are elected for fixed six-year terms, with half being chosen every three years.
Their party nominates a person to take their place until the next general election takes place.
The Governor-General nominates a person to take their place until the next general election takes place.
The relevant State Parliament nominates a person to take their place until the next general election takes place.
A by-election is held, in which the people elect a replacement to represent the seat until the next general election takes places.
If the vacancy occurs close to the scheduled election, a by-election may not necessarily take place.