A by-election is held in a particular House of Representatives electorate whenever a vacancy occurs. This may occur when:
- A member dies. This last occurred in 2001 in the Victorian electorate of Aston following the death of Peter Nugent.
- A member resigns. This may occur because a member wishes to retire or has been appointed to a government or non-government post.
Resignations are covered by Section 37 of the Constitution which states: “A member may by writing addressed to the Speaker, or to the Governor- General if there is no Speaker or if the Speaker is absent from the Commonwealth, resign his place, which there-upon shall become vacant.
- A member is absent. Section 38 of the Constitution states: “The place of a member shall become vacant if for two consecutive months of any session of the Parliament he, without the permission of the House, fails to attend the House.” This has never occurred in the House of Representatives.
- A member is expelled by the House of Representatives.
- House of Representatives By-Elections Since 1901
- Beattie Warns ALP Following Maryborough By-Election Defeat [Apr 28, 2003]
- Cunningham By-Election (October 19, 2002) – AEC by-election leaflet
- Aston By-Election (July 14, 2001)
- Ryan By-Election (March 17, 2001)
- Mar 18, 2001: Howard Says He Has Listened To The Voters But Maintains Government Direction Is Sound
- Mar 17, 2001: A Night Of See-Saw Counting In Ryan By-Election
- Mar 17, 2001: The (Former?) Liberal Party Stronghold of Ryan
- Mar 17, 2001: By-Election: Day Of Reckoning In Ryan
- Mar 15, 2001: The Politics Of The Exchange Rate
- Mar 14, 2001: How Will Beazley Fund Rollback?
- Mar 13, 2001: Another Poll Shows Coalition In Trouble As Ryan By-Election Nears
- Mar 04, 2001: A Week Is A Long Time In Politics
- Mar 02, 2001: Howard Opens Liberal Party Campaign For Ryan By-Election
- May 28, 2000: A By-Election In Isaacs?
- May 14, 2000: Nationals Concede Benalla To ALP
- May 13, 2000: Historic Victory As Labor Wins Benalla By-Election; Rural Voters Vent More Anger On Coalition
- May 13, 2000: Benalla By-Election A Test For National Party
- Nov 06, 1999: The Forgotten Poll: By-Election in Holt
- Feb 23, 1992: Wills By-Election Campaign Begins